My broad research interest involves study of the self, and most of my research revolves around the concept of self-esteem. I am particularly interested in exploring the antecedents of self-esteem. Specifically, I have compared how competence and acceptance affect self-esteem. Thus far, most of my research suggests that the contribution of acceptance to self-esteem is more powerful than the contribution of competence. I have also explored the possibility that self-complexity moderates the effects of rejection on state self-esteem. Recently, I have begun to conduct research on STTUC -- sensitivity about being the target of a threatening upward comparison.